1 Maulmaran

Marcel Gromaire La Guerre Descriptive Essay

Contexte historique

Pendant les hostilités de 1914 à 1918, dans tous les pays belligérants, les peintres, comme la grande majorité des artistes et des intellectuels, mobilisés ou non, participent avec sincérité à la culture de guerre en produisant des œuvres plus ou moins patriotiques. Mais compte tenu de l’extrême brutalité du conflit, et surtout de sa durée conduisant à de cruelles désillusions, certains de ces peintres tentent de représenter ce qu’ils perçoivent de la réalité en modifiant leur style pictural. La guerre moderne doit apparaître de manière moderne. Au milieu des années vingt les mouvements de remémoration et de célébration sont au cœur des préoccupations des artistes.

Analyse des images

Dans La Guerre, Marcel Gromaire a représenté cinq soldats casqués, engoncés dans des manteaux-cuirasses, dans une tranchée: trois attendent l’assaut éventuel ; les deux autres, observent le no man’s land par la fente d’une plaque d’acier. Avec des moyens plastiques proches du cubisme, il symbolise la lutte armée à l’échelle industrielle accomplie par des hommes-robots. Ces derniers apparaissent comme figés, se confondant presque avec le paysage (seule la couleur bleu horizon de leur uniforme les distingue de la paroi de la tranchée) au point de ressembler à des blocs de pierre, des statues colossales aux formes arrondies (les équipements) et abruptes. Seules les mains ont gardé une apparence humaine.

Interprétation

Les artistes n’échappent pas à l’évolution globale de la perception de l’affrontement et de sa terrible violence. Le temps du réalisme héroïque, des allégories patriotiques et de l’exaltation guerrière du début du conflit laisse progressivement place à diverses tentatives pour rendre compte de la souffrance et de la mort. La manière picturale se transforme, se débarrasse de ses oripeaux esthétiques, de son réalisme trompeur, les lignes se brisent, les couleurs éclatent, non pour représenter les détails du combat, mais pour donner à sentir autrement son horreur. Gromaire a peint ce tableau sept ans après la fin de la guerre, avec la distance d’une vision rétrospective fondée sur sa propre expérience d’ancien combattant. La composition générale, tout en renvoyant à la mécanisation et à la déshumanisation des affrontements, évoque également un de ces nombreux monuments aux morts construits dès l’immédiat après-guerre pour témoigner collectivement de l’hécatombe et ne pas oublier le sacrifice des soldats. Le corps massif et statufié de ceux-ci est devenu un monument funéraire. On voit bien, à travers cette œuvre de 1925, que le peintre est passé du consentement à la guerre au consentement à la célébration mémorielle.

Bibliographie

Stéphane AUDOIN-ROUZEAU et Jean-Jacques BECKER (dir.), Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, 1914-1918, Paris, Bayard, 2004.
Philippe DAGEN, Le Silence des peintres.
Les artistes face à la Grande Guerre
, Paris, Fayard, 1996 Kenneth E.
SILVER, Vers le retour à l’ordre.
L’avant-garde parisienne et la Première Guerre mondiale
, Paris, Flammarion, 1991.
Pierre VALLAUD, 14-18, la Première Guerre mondiale, tomes I et II, Paris, Fayard, 2004.

Pour citer cet article

Laurent VÉRAY, « La déshumanisation des soldats », Histoire par l'image [en ligne], consulté le 14 Mars 2018. URL : http://www.histoire-image.org/fr/etudes/deshumanisation-soldats

A rainy day essay in 150 words

In someones trial exam, they were writing about the poet wilfred owen, but the accidentally called him owen wilson throughout the essay

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